Mexico City, better prepared to face earthquakes

Mexico City is better prepared to face an earthquake like the one that mourned the capital in 1985, both in prevention culture and construction.

“Progress has been made in culture, actions that people are doing, certainly we must further strengthen the mechanisms, not to stay with it and know what to do,” says Fausto Lugo García, Secretary of Civil Protection of the Federal District .

In an interview with Notimex reports that the earthquake evacuation drills are carried out at different times and locations every year, promoting a culture of prevention. Home earthquake kit

“These exercises will always be important to perform them, because we will let you know what to do in the first few seconds and this makes the difference between well fought out of an emergency or injury or death”.

Citizens, he stressed, are the first who will respond to the first acts when they reach earthquakes occur, “we are the first responders in the place where we are”.

He said that another issue on which progress has been made in the capital is the one that has to do with the system of early arousal to earthquakes, in which Mexico City has invested in installing sensors on the ocean coast Pacific, which are activated upon detecting the first movement of an earthquake.

This allows the population to have 50 seconds ahead and take care to protect themselves or make a good evacuation procedure, said the official capital.

He noted that the action depends on whether the citizen those seconds give you time to leave the place where it is for a gathering or areas less risk, or if you can not evacuate the best is find the area of ​​lower risk.

“We have radio receivers installed in schools, public buildings and this year additional speaker systems security cameras also will issue the seismic alert from this September 19, at 11.30 am added” it said.

Lugo Garcia said in general have taken important steps in everything that has to do with the Civil Protection System of the City of Mexico, which since 1986 emerges as a network to coordinate and support citizenship and work with authorities Federal district coordination.

“It has evolved today is one of the most robust systems in the country and one of the most important in the world”.

The city government will continue along that path, “have a population more informed, more prepared, enabling people know what to do in the first few seconds before the occurrence of an earthquake.”

He said it is not enough to learn anything else to do in the building where you work, because “there we undertake, we should know what to do in our house, on the street, we should know what to do in a public spectacle, in a commercial area so those are the exercises. ”

It is essential that every citizen see the scenario that might be, what should be done and how to “save us in a situation of emergency seismic”.

The capital’s official reported that the quake from 8.1 degrees on the Richter scale that hit the capital in 1985, has evolved into what it has to do with the construction of buildings.

The building regulations now allows better buildings, “have processes more robust foundation, with different materials, studies of soil mechanics that enable properties in Mexico City have the guarantee is made that a similar 85 earthquake it has to happen. ”

However, he said that the regulation is perfectible, improvable, “but the conditions were 30 years ago today, we have much better conditions and this gives assurance that the Federal District can withstand a similar 85 earthquake,” he said .

Official recommendations to citizens before an earthquake are staying calm, locate lower risk areas, making withdrawal right, wait out the quake and at the end make the corresponding evacuation.

“No evacuate for this this earthquake, it is one rule number one, prevent falls, so that objects may fall down on the head or body, always be visible as a preventive measure the evacuation route”.

If possible, in the 50 seconds that the seismic alert provides citizens before the earthquake happens, shut off the gas and water and lower the power switch, “the Secretary of Civil Protection of the city government.

7.8 magnitude earthquake in the coastal area of ​​Ecuador leaves more than 600 dead

A total of 602 people died in a strong earthquake of magnitude 7.8 recorded on Saturday in the province of Manabi, in northwestern Ecuador, reported by the authorities .

The death toll, updated on Friday, exceeds that of the earthquake in Peru in 2007 and converted to that of Ecuador in the deadliest of Colombia South America since 1999, which killed more than 1,000 people .

In addition, earthquake kit list, the authorities of Ecuador claimed that 130 people are still missing and more than 25,000 homeless.

House demolished

There are also thousands injured and displaced.

Hundreds of emergency workers arrived from Colombia, Mexico, El Salvador, Spain and other countries.

Over the hours are growing fears about the situation of people left homeless by the quake, the lack of drinking water and the diseases that may arise.

According to the US Geological Survey (USGS, for its acronym in English) the quake had a magnitude of 7.8 and was recorded at 18:58 local time on Saturday (23:58 GMT).

The finding was supported by the Geophysical Institute of the National Polytechnic School of Ecuador.

President Rafael Correa broke off a trip to Europe and back in his country noted that this is “the greatest tragedy of the last 67 years , ” since the earthquake in Ambato of August 5, 1949 .

And according to the Geophysical Institute, more than 200 aftershocks, some with magnitude above 6 on the Richter scale have occurred since Saturday.


The quake’s epicenter was between the towns of Cojimíes and Pedernales, in the north of the province of Manabi, where communities are most affected.

Manta and Portoviejo also suffered severe damage.

But the Ecuadorian government declared a state of emergency throughout the country .

According to Vice President Jorge Glas, the decision was taken to ensure order, so that it can mobilize public force for the security of citizens and property.

The authorities also declared emergency in the provinces of Santa Elena, Manabi, Esmeraldas, Guayas, Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas and rivers.

President Correa said that Ecuador does not need food to cope with the situation, but if “something backup rescue teams”.

“Everything can rebuild, but you can not rebuild the lives lost and that’s what hurts us most , ” Bush said in a message that said some US $ 600 million were available to repair infrastructure.

Correa landed directly in Manta Sunday and toured the affected areas.

More than 10,000 soldiers and 4,600 police were deployed to assist in the rescue efforts and ensure order, after incidents in some localities affected were reported.


The coastal town of Pedernales in Manabi province, is one of the towns that suffered the fury of the earthquake.

“It is the collapse of a house, but the collapse of an entire people,” said the mayor of Pedernales, Gabriel Alcívar, the Teleamazonas television.

The Telecosta canal, Esmeraldas province, reported power outages throughout the province, wounded and collapsed houses .

Guayaquil daily Expreso reported that several buildings and shopping centers throughout Ecuador were evacuated.

The quake also was felt strongly in Quito , about 170 kilometers from home, where residents gathered in the streets for fear of réplicas.El Jose Joaquin de Olmedo Airport of Guayaquil, was closed.

They killed at least 6 foreign

The quake was also felt in border areas of Colombia and Peru, as reported by means of Bogota and Lima.

Colombia’s foreign ministry reported the death of a citizen of that country in the earthquake, while Canada reported two.

Pascal Laflamme was on video with his father when the quake struck. His wife, Jennifer Mawn, 38, and his son Arthur, 12, died after collapsing the roof of the house where they lived.

Laflamme and a daughter who was not in the house survived.

According to the Attorney General of the Republic, at least in Pedernales at least 6 of the recovered bodies are foreign citizens.

Learning from the earthquake in Japan

Terrible earthquake with a strength of 8.9 on the Richter scale followed by tsunami rocked the country Sakura day Friday, March 11, 2011. It happened in broad daylight when Japanese citizens were busy doing activities. The earthquake centered 130 Km East of Sendai, Honshu or 373 Km southeast of Tokyo at a depth of 24 km and resulting tsunami that swept the Northeast coast of Japan.

As in infokan in the media, according to the Japan Meteorological Agency said the earthquake this time was recorded as the largest disaster and after 140 years. This disaster even beyond the big earthquake in Kanto, Honshu, on September 1, 1923. The 7.9-magnitude earthquake shocks that time, killing at least 140 residents in the Tokyo area, earthquake survival kit

Large earthquake in Japan occurred on January 17, 1995 that hit Kobe with magnitude 7.3 Magnitude. This earthquake claimed 43 thousand people are severely injured, 6,400 homeless, 7,500 buildings burned and 350 thousand in the evacuation (The Japan Journal, 2004). And trigger economic losses reached $ 100 billion. It is claimed that time as the most expensive natural disaster in history.

The earthquake had occurred on October 23, 2004 in Niigata, one of the provinces in Japan with a magnitude of 6.8 Mangnitude resulted in 7,100 homes were destroyed, 3,100 damaged public facilities and more than 100 thousand people in the evacuation. Gempa- small earthquakes has been a regular menu each time for the people in Japan because so often.

Learning from the earthquake that happened before, especially after the earthquake in Kobe, Japan has been working to prepare for an earthquake, various anticipation of calamity has been performed, the Japanese build the Disaster Reduction and Human Renovation Center (DRI). This is a disaster and rehabilitation center in Kobe who took lessons from a devastating earthquake in Kobe.

Even Japan has the Disaster Management Ministry in the government system. This ministry has a budget of hundreds of billions to deal with and face an earthquake. Japan annually allocates 5 percent of the budget in particular that must be used to anticipate disaster.

Various anticipation of the earthquake do, from building tall buildings, offices and even homes with earthquake-proof building design. Additionally earthquake simulation conducted in offices, schools to each home environment.

Mental Japanese society has also been prepared to deal with it, to avoid panic during the earthquake that minimize casualties. Problems earthquakes entered the Japanese school curriculum, intended for school children in the country knows how to deal with the earthquake without excessive fear.

Small books that contain the earthquake emergency procedures in the form of images and text short, compact, attractive and easy to understand propagated. For example, in the book it is taught that the first step is to find the face of the earthquake survivors quietly under the table with a pillow over his head. It is intended to protect the head from possible falling objects when the earthquake struck.

Jump out of the building during the earthquake are considered more risky, especially when in a tall building. In the booklet was also explained about the tsunami. It is devoted to those who live near the beach. As soon as the earthquake first step should seek high ground. Tsunami usually come so quickly after the earthquake. Such a procedure has been ingrained for the Japanese society.

In addition the concept of evacuation and communications systems have been made, so that the Japanese people already know to run where during the earthquake. Modern earthquake evacuation route has been created, including making extensive gardens at every point of the city as a gathering point. The early warning system or Early Warning System has been installed everywhere.

Television will broadcast a warning less than two minutes after the earthquake. Evacuation in buildings made clear and every night at 15:00 to 15:15 routinely provide warnings regarding the procedures for the evacuation of high-rise building during an earthquake like the security procedures that we see if the plane described the cabin crew.

The disaster action system because the Japanese people live in areas that are prone to earthquakes, so that they are aware of the importance of preparing myself for every earthquake which often comes unexpectedly. So, when the big quake yesterday the Japanese people could still line up out of the building, something that probably will not happen in our country.

Even as the earthquake in Kobe in 1995 by Conan Ihzha Mahendra, who was living in Japan at that time he did not see any looting by the public, not even happen valorization by the shop owner to seek personal gains amid suffering of others. Such solidarity is already embedded in Japanese society. An action that we need to sample for us to apply in our country.

However, despite being so maximum efforts for disaster relief, back again in the power of God above all else. Terrible disaster and tsunami last Friday so terrible that Japan has the technological capability and readiness to face it looks helpless against the power of God. I can not imagine when the earthquake and tsunami in Jakarta, the victim may be more going on.

Recall, according to some experts more casualties occurred because the tsunami after the quake, which came so quickly and enormously so it is beyond human ability to be immediately a catastrophe, not because of the earthquake.

Therefore, the lessons learned from the case of the earthquake in Japan this is the first, as humans we are a God-given ability to think to always learn from experience what happened. For that we are in this case the government should learn from this incident. We’ve experienced a massive earthquake and tsunami incident in 2004 in Aceh. Indeed, after that we started to think and realize the importance of disaster mitigation to minimize casualties.

Various attempts have been made but we are known by the people forgetful, so it was some time after the disaster we would wake up and think but after that shortly we will fall asleep and forget. Again through this article, I was reminded disaster is beyond our will, so that we can do is maximize the anticipation effort to minimize the impact by building a disaster management system started before the disaster preparedness through mitigation system that with riset- research, exercises , establishing early warning systems, evacuation and communication, doing counseling about the disaster, making SOP-SOPs etc.

Then the handling during the disaster through emergency response procedures should be made permanent only too well applicable. Furthermore, post-disaster through disaster rehabilitation activities. It must really we prepare for our country is also prone to disasters.

Second, from Japan’s earthquake, we are reminded that the power of God above all else. Japan with technology that can be said to be the greatest at this time was not able to and have no power to face this disaster. By it, let us realize that we are weak so let us get closer to Him, we boast inappropriate because it is actually a weak man before God. He kaula wala Kuwata illah billahil aliyil adzim.

The cause of the tsunami in an area

The tsunami was a terrible natural where this disaster in its history has claimed many lives.

Tsunami is a Japanese language which means ocean waves, that is the big wave coming from the sea towards the mainland as masiv. This situation makes an area where the tsunami suffered enormous damage.

Hasil gambar untuk jenis-jenis gempa yang ada

Generally causes a tsunami is an earthquake whose center is located below sea level.

Causes tsunami

Tsunamis can occur if an interruption occurs that causes the displacement of large amounts of water, such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides or meteorite that fell to earth. However, 90% a tsunami is due to undersea earthquakes. In recording the history of some of the tsunami caused by the volcanic eruption, for example, when the eruption of Mount Krakatoa.

Vertical movement in the Earth’s crust, can lead to the seafloor rise or drop suddenly, resulting in disruption of water balance that was on it. This resulted in the energy flow of sea water, which when it reached the coast into big waves resulting tsunami.

Tsunami wave speed depends on the depth of the sea where the waves occur, where speed can reach hundreds of kilometers per hour. When the tsunami reaches the shore, the speed will be approximately 50 km / h and energy is very damaging coastal path.

Mid-ocean tsunami wave height is only a few centimeters to a few meters, but when it reaches shore wave height can reach tens of meters due to the accumulation of past water. When it reaches the coast of the mainland tsunami will creep away from the shoreline with a range of several hundred meters even several kilometers.

This vertical movement can occur on earth fault or faults. The earthquake also occurred in subduction zones, where oceanic plate under the continental plate infiltrates into.

Landslides on the ocean floor and volcanic debris can also cause interference with sea water to generate a tsunami. The quake that caused the movement perpendicular to the layer of earth. As a result, the sea floor heaving suddenly so that the balance of seawater on it undisturbed. Similarly, cosmic or meteor that fell from above. If the size of the meteor or landslide is big enough, it can happen megatsunami which reaches hundreds of meters.

The earthquake that caused the tsunami
* Earthquake centered in the sea and shallow (0-30 km)
* An earthquake with a strength of at least 6.5 on the Richter Scale
* An earthquake with a pattern of reverse fault or the fault down

What Causes Earthquakes Army in Nepal?

Earthquake in Nepal that the 7.8 magnitude at a depth of 15 kilometers a shallow earthquake as a result of plate collision. “In tectonics, Nepal region is formed of the Indian continental plate collision that goes under the Eurasian continent with a speed of 45 millimeters per year,” said the doctor of geoscience expert from the Bandung Institute of Technology, Irwan Meilano, told Tempo , Sunday, April 26, 2015.

See also: home earthquake kit

What Causes Earthquakes Army in Nepal?

An earthquake occurred on Saturday, April 25th last, it has a reverse fault mechanism with maximum shift in the field of earthquake reached 4 meters. Broad field that shifts it reaches 160 x 120 kilometers.

“The shock is felt reaching intensity IX or guncangannya so hard that destroyed the buildings are built without the rules of good engineering,” he said.

Previously, according to Irwan, in 1934, Nepal never been shaken by an earthquake similar to the scale 8 on the Richter scale. “After 80 years, maybe they forgot it ever happened,” he said.

In addition to generating earthquake, the continental plate collision of India and Eurasia in the past it also gave rise to the Himalayas. “But not a volcano because it was not the result of tunjaman plate,” said the expert in the earthquake.

Previously reported, an earthquake measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale that rocked Nepal on Saturday local time resulted in more than 1,800 people died. Though most scientists and geologists have predicted this earthquake. A week earlier, about 50 geologists and earthquake experts from various parts of the world met in Kathmandu, Nepal.

They talk about the geological conditions of Nepal are vulnerable to major earthquakes. Nepal they believe the massive earthquake in 1934 that killed more than 20 thousand people will recur.

How Volcanoes Erupt?

Volcano erupts when magma sediment that is in the earth’s crust is pushed out by a very high-pressure gas. Magma rises to the surface pass through cracks in rocks and flowing like a river of fire, carrying rocks, dust, ash, steam and other hot gas path. Magma that erupted from the volcano is called lava. Over time, this lava to cool and hardened into rocks and pile up to form a new mountain.

The result of the volcanic eruption in the form of: earthquake insurance

  • Volcanic gas
  • The flow of lava and sand followed Hot Stone
  • Lava
  • ash eruption
  • Heat clouds (pyroclastic)

A little explanation about the result of a volcanic eruption:

  1. Volcanic gases are gases emitted when a volcanic eruption which released include carbon monoxide (CO), Carbondioksida (Co2), HidrogenSulfida (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen (NO2) are harmful to humans.
  2. Lava is liquid magma flowing at high temperature to the surface through volcanic crater. Lava dilute able to flow away from the source mengikutisungai or valleys of viscous lava flows while not far dar isumbernya.
  3. Lahar is one danger for the people living on the slopes of the volcano. Lahar is flooded Bandang mountainside consisting of a mixture of volcanic material sized lump of clay till. Known as lava eruptions and lava rain. Lava eruptions occur when a volcano has a crater lake erupted, so the hot water mixes with the lake eruption material, while the rain lava eruptions occur due to material mixing with rain water around the peak.
  4. Volcanic ash is very fine material. Due to the impact of wind gusts could be felt hundreds of kilometers away. The impact of the ash problems breathing, difficulty seeing, contamination of clean water sources, causing an electrical storm, interrupting work machinery and motor vehicles, damaging the roof, damaging fields, damaging infrastructure body.
  5. Hot clouds can be a stream of hot clouds, blowing hot clouds and pyroclastic fallout.Hot clouds of material flow is a major eruption cloud hot, flowing down and eventually settles in and around the river valley. Blowing hot cloud is a cloud of hot material small eruptions, wind blown at speeds reaching 90 km / h. Dropping hot cloud is a cloud of hot material large and small eruption that was brought up by the great strength of the eruption. Large-sized material will fall around the peak, while the fine would fall in the tens, hundreds or even thousands of km from the summit because of the influence of wind gusts. Hot clouds can cause severe burns ntubuh bagia open as head, arm, neck or leg and also cause shortness until no breathing.

    Facing tips LetusanGunungMerapi


    1. Find out about community security system in their respective areas as well as a flow chart of an emergency
    2. Beware of the dangers that accompany volcanic eruptions, namely:
      – lahar and flood disaster
      – landslide and hailstones (volcanic material)
      – Earthquake
      – The rain of ash and acid rain
      – Tsunami
    3. Make evacuation plans
      – If you live in areas prone to volcanic disaster,
      should remember the route where it is safe to pass.
      – Form community volcano hazards
      – Try to gather with other family members.
      – Make a note of the telephone number / contact other family members. Involve family who live far away to be able to help communication because usually after a disaster is easier to perform remote contact.

Make inventory of emergency supplies such as:
– Battery / flashlight and extra batteries stones
– medicines for first aid
– food and water for emergencies.
– can opener
– dust mask
– Shoes
– Wear sunglasses and use the mask in case of ashfall.

  1. Contact the authorities on disaster reduction.
  2. Although it seems safer to stay indoors until the volcano stops erupting, but if you live in hazard-prone areas will be very dangerous volcano. Obey the instructions that authority and do as soon as possible.

Tips on Dealing with Earthquakes

Indonesia is one country that is prone to earthquakes. Earthquake insurance california unfortunately the earthquake disaster is one of the very unpredictable when it comes from and how his powers. Nevertheless, there are some simple tips in an earthquake either before, during or after the occurrence of earthquake. before we know the tips before the earthquake we have to pay attention to important matters related to the main earthquake.

among others recognize the so-called earthquake. In addition, make sure the structure and location of the house or building can be protected from the dangers caused by the earthquake. The other thing is to evaluate and re renovating your building structure in order to avoid other earthquake hazard is to recognize the environment in which to work and live. For example, consider the location of doors, elevators and emergency stairs, in the event of an earthquake, already know the safest place to take cover.

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Then learn to do P3K and use a fire extinguisher. And do not forget to record important phone numbers to be contacted in the event of an earthquake needs to be done is to prepare the home state in order to minimize the impact of the earthquake. For example, furniture such as cabinets arranged cabinet attached to the wall by means of nailed or tied. How to avoid falling, collapsing, shifting in the event earthquake.

do well to store flammable materials in places that are not easily broken, to avoid the fire. Always turn off the water, gas and electricity when not what needs to be done is to set up a heavy object as far as possible on the bottom. Check the stability of objects depends to fall when earthquake.

what if during the earthquake? There are some tips in case earthquake. some situations you are in a building or home. If there is an earthquake to protect the head and body of the rubble by hiding under a table or other object that can withstand the pressure. In addition, look for the safest place on the ruins of the shock. And wherever possible running out if they can . are outside the building or open area. If there is an earthquake to avoid the buildings in the surrounding buildings, utility poles, trees and others. Note beachhead in case of fracture .avoid’re driving.

If an earthquake happens out or down and away from the car to avoid if there is a shift. Looking for the safest place on the ruins of the shock. Never stop on the bridge! If you live or are on the beach, stay away from the beach to escape the tsunami to seek higher ground or building that is strong enough and higher.If live in mountainous areas, in the event of an earthquake avoid the possible avalanche areas. other tips are tips after the earthquake. The first tip if it is located within the building. What to do if it is in this situation is out of the building with tertib.

proficiency level using escalators or elevators, use the stairs usual. Check if there are injured, do P3K. Phone and call for help in case of severe injury to you or around Besides being it should also examine the surrounding environment such as when the event . Check the event of a gas leak and short circuit. Check the flow and water pipes.

Check out all the things that may be harmful as not turning off the power and api. be avoided after the earthquake is not to go into a building that has been an earthquake, because the possibility is still there ruins. Do not walk around the earthquake zone, the possibility of the danger of aftershocks still ada. listen to information about earthquake of radio or other information. This is to avoid the event of aftershocks.

Strategy and Tornado Disaster Relief Efforts

Indonesia is a disaster-prone country is currently facing, especially climate change. The impact of climate change in the weather ektream potentially creating a major disaster. many weather disasters arising from ektream like, Flooding, Mudslides Up to hurricanes. One needs to be in anticipation of disaster was Hurricane.

A hurricane is a vortex winds with wind speeds of 120 km / h or more are common in tropical regions between the Tropic of Cancer and south, except in areas very close to the equator. This wind usually occurs in the Indonesian region of transition or when entering Season transitional seasons and commonly called the wind storm. Hurricanes can occur because of the pressure of a weather system, this wind prone to happen in the tropics.

Strategy and Tornado Disaster Relief Efforts

See also: facts of what causes earthquakes

The onset of symptoms Typhoon

Tropical storm winds disaster could happen at any time, and suddenly, the majority of this storm winds created through a process of several hours. This whirlwind of disaster can be monitored via satellite. The satellite is able to determine the direction of hurricanes, but significant weather changes create a storm disaster is difficult to predict. so that this disaster could happen at any time, many effects of the disaster such as damage to infrastructure, facilities and even cause casualties. Here are the efforts in disaster reduction whirlwind

Efforts for Disaster Reduction

  • Has a structure that can meet the technical requirements to be able to withstand wind especially large wind
  • In areas vulnerable to wind storms, it needs to take into account building standards for wind loads. So that the structure can withstand winds can get up.
  • Greening at the top of the wind direction to dampen the force of the wind.
  • Security / retrofitting of parts easily by the wind that could endanger themselves or others around them.
  • Preparedness in the face of hurricanes, knows how to escape
  • Security items around the house that are bound / built strong that the wind
  • For the fishermen, so that a strong tether or bind his ships.

Know Movement Plate Tectonics

Every time a massive earthquake term movement of tectonic plates are always emerging. Also the term is referred to when talking about the area of ​​an active volcano. What and how to actually move the tectonic plates?

The devastating earthquake that triggered the tsunami in Aceh in 2004 or 2011 the same Fukushima tsunami triggered by the movement of tectonic plates. The movement of tectonic plates typically release enormous energy that trigger earthquakes in the surrounding area.

It is known that active seismic zones in the world with regard to the movement of the tectonic plates. Active seismic region in the form of a fault or faults are all located in the region or the periphery of the collision of tectonic plates. What causes earthquakes facts

Also the trigger plate tectonics is the area of ​​active volcanoes around the world. Today we recognize the so-called Pacific Ring of Fire circular from North America, Japan, Indonesia, Hawaii and back toward South America. But what did and how it’s actually the movement of tectonic plates?

Plate tectonics theory was first introduced by meteorologists geophysical and polar researchers from Germany, Alfred Wegener in 1915. Wegener pubklikasi scientific work “The Origin of Continent and Oceans” which also explains the movement of tectonic plates. He based his theory on the appearance of the geographic continents in the world and paleontological findings which support the hypothesis. German scientists have theorized that the earth’s crust consists of plates which float on the molten mass over.

Wegener’s theory initially harassed and ridiculed many of the leading geoscience expert in his day. Because, at that time there is no technology that is able to explain the phenomenon that is difficult as it is. It was only in the 1950s, about 20 years after Wegener died provable theory of plate tectonics.
Suddenly, the mystery of the earthquake, volcanology activity and the Earth’s crust movements unfold as plate tectonic theory can explain the cause. Earthquake typically occur in subduction zones where two or more tectonic plates meet.

Plate movement is very slow, sometimes only one centimeter per year, but in a cumulation of hundreds or thousands of years, the energy of the movement can be very powerful if released immediately. This was a great earthquake triggers worldwide. Until now, geologists can not predict when an earthquake will occur.

Dynamic Earth
With Wegener’s based on the theory of “continental drift” or movement of tectonic plates, it is evident that the Earth is a dynamic planet. The core is composed of hot molten rock, which floats on top crust thick layer only a few tens of meters to tens of kilometers.

Collision or separation of two or more tectonic plates, for billions or hundreds of millions of years ago formed the morphology of the planet. About 300 million years ago in the Carboniferous to Jurassic Earth there is only one giant continent called Pangea, which is a merger of two great continents Laurussia and Gondwana.

About 230 million years ago in the Triassic first supercontinent Pangea broke and about 150 million years ago formed the morphology of the continent as it is today. In the movement of tectonic plates over hundreds of millions this year also Himalayas that was once the basis of the ocean which is then lifted to a height of 4,000 meters. The Andes Mountains, and also the circuit Aalpina Pacific ring of fire also formed due to tectonic plate dynamics.

Geologists predict within the next 300 million years, due to tectonic plate movement, will form a new giant continent called Pangea Ultima.


Exogenous force is one force that meproses formation of the earth are of extraterrestrial origin that generally damage. Exogenous force is one force that includes a process having the character of damage as the weathering process (weathering), erosion (erosion), land movement (mass wasting), and precipitation (sedimentation). thus it can be concluded that the notion of exogenous energy is energy that make up the earth with destructive processes such as erosion, weathering, precipitation, and the transportation.

Read here: what causes earthquakes

Understanding Power Exogenous
peroses exogenous force is divided into several types Following is an explanation of the types of exogenous power: Read More Complete Understanding Power Endogenous and Exogenous Complete

Weathering (weathering) is a process of rock mass destruction which it is affected by the climate, rock structures, topography, and biological factors such as plants, animals and humans. Weathering can be classified into three types, namely mechanical weathering, weathering biological / organic, chemical weathering. This weathering is one type of exogenous destructive power. Some of the effects of weathering of rocks can be seen in the devastated area of the desert that forms the desert regions because of temperature extremes, extracting mineral that damage the lining of rock or soil, until the dissolution of calcium by rainwater.

Erosion or abrasion is one type of exogenous energy. Erosion is a process of the release or transfer of a material, rocks, soil naturally by forces of erosion, such as by water, waves, wind, and ice / glacier.

Land movement (mass wasting)
Other forms of exogenous energy is ground movement or mass wasting, or also more popular with landslides. Ground motion is the process of rock mass displacement and destruction or massive soil to a lower place. Perpindahanya ground movement was more influenced by the earth’s gravity as landslides (landslide), ground subsidence, soil flows, mud flows and soil creep. almost all of the processes that occur in the presence of the Earth’s gravitational influence.

Precipitation or sedimentation
Precipitation or sedimentation is a process that occurs on the result of a process of weathering, erosion processes, and the process of ground motion to a lower place so that it will undergo a process pengendapa. Thus, sediment deposition events rock material that has been transported or moved by force from a higher to a lower place. Sedimentation is one type of exogenous energy. Sedimentation or deposition is done continuously and takes place in a long period of time can change the shape of the earth’s surface. Read a more complete definition and example Sedimentary Rocks


Denudation is one example of an exogenous force that resulted in a lowering relief of land. Because denudation also the earth’s surface will decrease the height. Mountains and hills, the longer will be lower, because the process of exogenous energy such as weathering, erosion, soil longor and then a process of transport or transport and sedimentation. Landform due to denudation is penelpain ie the vast plains and the more sloping to the sea.